Please give me the answer to the A-level Biology Question How is the concentration of sodium altered in a cell in the intestines and why is glucose absorption affected?
A-level Biology Help >>>> What causes sodium levels affected in cells in the intestines? Why is it that glucose absorption is affected? Imagine a cell that is one of a rectangle. Of the one side, there are the shape of a finger (this side is facing the lumen of the intestinal) known as the villi while the other is flat. It is the bottom membrane of the cell, which is composed of various components such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. These components play an important role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane. For example, Describe and explain the main function of the proximal convolute, which is responsible for transporting sodium and glucose into and out of the cell. On the flat surface, blood is continuously flowing by and carrying with it a variety of substances which exit to the flat sides of the cell. On the membrane of the finger there are proteins that pump at the same time Na the ions and Glucose through the intestinal lumen to the cell. They are known as the symport protein. In Greek, Sym.=with/together and in latin port is door. So two things, sodium and glucose are brought TOGETHER in the cell. In the cells with a flat bottom,, we also have potassium and sodium pumps. This is an enzyme that removes 3 sodium molecules from the cell and it pumps 2 potassium molecules into the cell. In order to accomplish that , it makes use of ATP. The pump breaks the ATP down into ATP in addition to Pi and then uses the energy it releases to perform the pumping. So, the pump, which is that is on the flat side takes sodium out of the intestinal cells and decreases the amount of sodium present inside the cell. In the end in comparing what's inside the cell to the intestinal lumen , we find that inside the intestine, there is more sodium. We've got what's known as an sodium concentration gradient. Therefore, sodium would like to go where there's less sodium down its concentration gradient and this is what happens internal linings of intestinal cells. This allows the proteins that are located on the finger-like surface of the cell to accomplish this task, but how do these components specifically affect movement for sodium and glucose? Describe and explain the main function of the proximal convolute, which is responsible for transporting sodium and glucose into and out of the cell. Additionally, how is the process by which plants turn towards a light source c, known as phototropism, affected by these components? How do the components of a plasma membrane affect the movement o'f sodium and glucose into and out of the cell?